Earth - Atmosphere

  1. How does lightning work?
  2. Where did the Earth's second atmosphere of methane and ammonia come from?
  3. What was the atmosphere of the Earth like after the sun went through the T- Tauri stage?
  4. Why are the atmospheres of Venus and Earth so different?
  5. Where can I get info about the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere at various altitudes?
  6. How dense is the atmosphere between 100 km and geosynch orbit at 36,000 km?
  7. Where did nitrogen and water come from in the primitive earth atmosphere?
  8. What are 'red lightning' or 'sprites' seen in thunderstorms?
  9. Where did the earth's first methane-rich atmosphere come from?
  10. How does the temperature of the atmosphere change with altitude?
  11. Why doesn't the Earth have lots of ammonia like Jupiter?
  12. Does the temperature of space affect the weather on Earth?
  13. Why doesn't the atmosphere of the Earth dissipate into space?
  14. Why is the sky blue?
  15. Do the hydrogen nuclei from the solar wind combine with oxygen to produce water in the Earth's atmosphere?
  16. What is a Schumann Resonance?
  17. What causes the 'sprites' seen in certain weather phenomena?
  18. Where does the atmosphere end and outer space begin?

All answers are provided by Dr. Sten Odenwald (NASA/Raytheon)